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Finland has the cleanest air in the world – and that’s a fact!

The cleanest air in the world is in Finnish Lapland. It is proven that the world’s cleanest respiratory air is in the Muonio municipality of Western Lapland. In Muonio, there are only 4 microgrammes of particles of under 10 micrometres in a cubic metre, while in the world’s dirtiest city, Nigeria’s Onitsha, there are almost 600 microgrammes.

The database for 2016 of the World Health Organisation (WHO) reveals that the clean localities in the world are usually small, affluent and located far from industrial areas. Other particularly clean localities are Norman Wells, Canada, Campisábalos, Spain, and Converse County, United States. The WHO list took into account the mass concentrations of fine particles whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres (PM10). The diameter corresponds to a seventh part of a hair’s thickness. Particles of under ten micrometres travel with respiratory air into the human bronchi.

Finnish Lapland has the cleanest air in the world.

In Finland, the limit values of clean air are not reached anywhere

According to the WHO’s recommendations, the annual average of PM10 particles should be a maximum of 20 microgrammes per cubic metre. According to the WHO’s statistics, the levels fall below that everywhere in Finland, even in big cities.

According to the WHO, there was an average of 12 microgrammes per cubic metre including in Finnish urban areas in 2011. In India, the corresponding quantity is 134.

Only a tenth of European urban population enjoys air as clean as this. Air quality can be considered particularly poor, if the average of the mass concentration of particles of under 10 micrometres exceeds 100 microgrammes during an hour.

More dangerous than PM10 particles are fine particles of a diameter of 2.5 micrometres. Their amount per cubic metre should not exceed 10 microgrammes. In the world’s cleanest place, Muonio, the annual average for 2.5-micrometre particles is only 2 microgrammes.

It transpires from the WHO’s data, into which have also been collected the measurement data of fine particles of 2.5-micrometres from 3,000 localities in a hundred countries for the years 2008–2014 that, on average, Finland has the third cleanest air in the world. Only Sweden and Canada top Finland. Finland is followed by Australia, Iceland and Estonia. Air quality in these countries is very clean, that is, an average of fine particle concentrations of 2.5 micrometers fall below 8 microgrammes per cubic metre.

Finland’s air quality is excellent compared to the rest of the world.

According to senior researcher Pia Anttila of the Finnish Meteorological Institute, several factors influence Finland’s good air quality.

– Finland is located far enough from big European cities, so emissions from long-range transport of pollutants remain low. On a global scale, there is really only one big city in Finland, Helsinki, and even its air quality is excellent. There are also few inhabitants and little traffic in Finland. A very significant aspect is also that Finland has managed to curtail industrial emissions. In addition to good cleaning methods, industrial processes operate with clean technology.

Pia Anttila says that people living in countries with clean air do not always understand what a natural resource clean air is. Over 80% of the world’s urban population is exposed to air pollutants exceeding the WHO’s recommended values. Over 3.5 billion or a half of the world’s population live in countries where there is an average exposure to a quantity of particles exceeding the WHO’s limit values.

Fine particles and air pollutants cause asthma and aggravate obstructive lung disease and respiratory infection. The great quantity of fine particles also increases the occurrence of coronary heart disease and diseases of cerebral circulation. For example, if the quantity of PM10 particles can be reduced from 70 microgrammes per cubic metre to 20 microgrammes, mortality decreases by 15%.

If you want to breathe the cleanest air in the world, this is your destination: Muonio, Lapland.

Large African and Asian cities suffer from air pollution. Although the 600-microgramme figure of Onitsha, Nigeria, is huge, the figures are also alarmingly high the big cities of Asia. In Beijing, there are over 100 microgrammes of PM10 particles per cubic metre, in Delhi, India, over 230 and in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, even over 350. In Helsinki, the corresponding figure is 19. In Muonio, the cleanest place in the world, there are, on the other hand, almost five times less PM10 particles than in Helsinki.

Clean nature of Pallas-Yllästunturi

One of the world’s air quality measurement stations is located in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Finland’s most popular national park. The exceptionally clean air of this measurement station is compared to the data of the world’s other measurement stations. The measurement stations give important data for analysing the state of the world’s environment.

– Finland’s air quality is excellent compared to the rest of the world, particularly Asia, notes Riku Lumiaro of the Finnish Environment Institute.

– For example in Beijing you can feel the air pollutants in your lungs on a windless day. You’re also tired and your head aches.

Sunset seen from Pallastunturi fell, Muonio

Lumiaro considers Finland a good destination for health tourists. In Finland, the air, the water and the food are clean.

In Lumiaro’s view, a special feature of Pallas-Ylläs-tunturi National Park is quietness, in addition to the world’s cleanest air.

– In the spring and autumn, even birds are quiet there. In good wilderness hotels you can peacefully view the spacious fell landscape, which comes into its own in the clear, clean air.

The largest quantity of PM10 particles per cubic meter per day in Europe in 2005. Source: EEA. www.eea.europa.eu/publications/spatial-assessment-of-pm10-and-ozone-concentrations-in-europe-2005-1

This article was originally published by Ari Turunen / Slow Finland / Visit Finland

Photos by Jonna Saari

How to take good photos of Northern lights? These 4 easy steps will help you capture the magic of the sky

Northern lights are one phenomena which everybody should see at least once in their lifetime. Seeing auroras is always a bit luck. Even if the odds are in your favor, it’s never 100% sure that they will show up.

Lights hiding behind the trees.

Fortunately Finnish Lapland usually offers pretty good conditions for an amazing light show. Every now and then Northern lights are visible also in Southern Finland.

Location: Tampere, Southern Finland. Settings: ISO800, f4, 8sec.

Seeing is one, photographing another thing. Here are a few tips that can help you to capture the show.

I was photographing sunset and suddenly this aurora show started. Settings: Iso 6400, f4, 2 sec.

  1. Best time to capture the auroras

Polar night during the winter offers many hours of darkness, but it’s also cold. Very cold! Like -20 celcius degrees (-4 fahrenheit). Summer is out of the option: There is sunlight 24 hours a day. It is completely possible to photograph auroras during winter, but wear proper clothes. Also remember extra batteries. Cold drains them fast. My advice is September and October during autumn, and March to April during spring. Autumn is also time of colors and spring is great for snowy sunset photos.

Dim auroras and city lights. Settings: ISO 2500, f4, 25sek.

  1. Wait for the dark and clear skies – use Aurora forecast

There can be Northern lights during the day, but they are not visible while sunlight is still strong. Sometimes powerful Northern lights can be seen after sunset. Find a dark place and wait. Clear skies are also essential. If the clouds are too thick, you can’t see auroras. Be patient. Sometimes even a cloudy night can offer 30 minutes of clear skies and awesome light shows. They might appear in one minute and be gone in the next. It doesn’t hurt to use forecast service like Space weather.

Shallow clouds and auroras in Lapland. Temperature -20c degrees. Settings: ISO 4000, f4, 25 sec.

  1. Use a tripod or something else to hold the camera in place

While aurora show can be strong, it’s not as strong as daylight. You’ll need to use long exposure, which means holding the camera still for 1-20 seconds. Tripod is great, but you can also use ground or something else to hold the camera in place. And use timer! You don’t want to accidentally move the camera by pressing buttons.

Hossa National Park, Finland. Settings: ISO 2000, f4, 25 sec.

  1. Camera settings

The best quality comes with DSLR cameras, but you can get pretty good pictures with pocket cameras and even some cell phones. If you can set ISO, choose shutter speed and aperture, great! If you can’t, it’s ok. With pocket cameras / cell phones, just find a steady place and point to the sky. If you have a night mode and timer, use them.

For DSLR I usually start with these settings: ISO 1600, shutter speed 8 seconds and aperture around 2.8 – 4. If lights are moving fast, try shutter speed of 4 seconds. Remember to compensate by lowering or increasing ISO. You can also try 15 – 25 seconds, but too slow shutter speed could mean one messy light ball photo.

Auroras in purple and green colors. Settings: ISO 1600, f4, 30 sec.

Hopefully these tips help you to capture your own Aurora photos. Please check out my Instagram profile @anttiphotography and comments are more than welcome. Thank you and see you next time!

Sudden auroras over lake. Location: Lapland, Finland.

This is what I saw as I walked 500 meters into a dark, silent, frozen forest

I live in a small village in the middle of Lapland. In fact, most people who live in Lapland live in small villages. That’s because there are almost no proper cities here at all, above the arctic circle.

And because there are no cities, there is no articifial light, but lots and lots of darkness in winter. But during this darkness, the sky can sometimes set on green and purple fire.

Last night I left home around 7 p.m. and walked into the forest next to our house. I had no headlamp or flashlight with me, as I knew that after a few minutes my eyes would get used to the darkness. There is a bit of snow on the ground, which helps to see the path. Also, the Moon started rising.

After having walked only about a 100 meters, I saw the first flames in the sky.

I sat down and looked at the auroras dancing above me.

In the dark forest full of pure silence, I could hear some soft and distant rustling. At first I thought it was the aurora making that noise, as they are known to make some weird sounds sometimes. But then, as I sat there thinking about it, I realized that what I actually heard was the nearby lake freezing. The temperature was well below zero.

I stood up and headed forward. I wanted to see the nearest swamp. And boy, was it beautiful.

I sat down again, this time next to a small pine on the edge of the forest. I didn’t want to walk on the swamp, as it might not be fully frozen yet. It was safer to stay on dry ground. I was wearing enough clothes so I didn’t feel cold at all, even though I was sitting in snow.

I could still hear the sound of the freezing lake. Then I heard a little snap behind me. I still don’t know what it was, but probably it was just a freezing tree. Trees can make popping sounds when it gets really cold. It’s such an interesting experience to walk into a dark forest in winter: you can even hear the trees.

I texted my husband that everything was ok and that I was be heading home now.

In a Finnish forest there’s really not much to be afraid of. Reindeer and moose are not dangerous, and wolves, wolverines and bears do not come anywhere near you. Most finns know this and that is why we love to spend time in forests, enjoying silence, pure air and sometimes also auroras.

Different moods of Pyhä-Luosto National Park

One of my favourite places in the world is Pyhä-Luosto National Park. Fells are all that is left of ancient mountains. Although Pyhä-Luosto is a skiresort with extensive winter activities, I think the most magical time to visit this park is Summer or Autumn. Here are a few pictures that I have taken over the years.

Snow blowers working.

Autumn is the time of mystics. Fog and bright colors are great reasons to spend a few days in Pyhä-Luosto.

Sometimes the light almost gets through

Beautiful fall colours and Pyhänkasteenputous waterfall

Silently waiting

On the other hand in the summer there is light 24 hours a day. Lapland’s summer is swift but bright. Make sure you are not visiting Lapland during “räkkä” a.k.a. the worst mosquito time. End of July and August are great for hiking and mosquitos won’t bother you too much.

Between fells there is a paradise

Uhriharju lookout during summer

Midnight view on top of Pyhätunturi fell

Moonlight reveals foggy terrain

Of course in Lapland you will run into reindeer. Some times the clouds are so low that the only clear place is on top of the fells.

The Alfa and the herd

Above the clouds

Midnight sun, as they call it, is the opposite of polar night. Basically summer is light and winter is dark. Very dark and cold. There are sunlight only for a few hours a day, maybe not even that.

Sunset turning to sunrise

Ancient mountains have been swiped away by ice ages and erosion. This is what is left of the majestic mountains.

Old stones

Mystical autumn

Isokuru gorge during summer

 

First snow has fallen in Lapland – this is what Sodankylä looks right now

First snow is always magical. As polar night approaches, there is less and less sunlight every day. One day the sun no longer rises at all. But with only a pinch of snow the whole world gets bright again.

I went to see the first snow to the hills of Sodankylä. My friend came along with her lapponian herder puppy Ruska.

It was a sunny day after weeks and weeks of cloudiness. We climbed to the top of Pittiövaara hill to have a picnic. A raven came to say hello to us. What a beautiful bird.

It was noon and the temperature was a few degrees below freezing. We were wearing lots of warm clothes and also proper hiking shoes – Pittiövaara is a rocky hill, and it is not easy to walk safely on big snowy rocks.

Some parts were too challenging for the puppy. Luckily she still fits in a backpack.

We chose a sunny spot to stop and have a coffee. It was a little gorge on the top of the hill, so the rocks gave us shelter from the cold wind. It was spectacular. In the horizon we could see the silhouettes of Pyhätunturi and Luosto – the Pyhä-Luosto national park.

The trip took us a few hours. I can not imagine a better way to spend a sunny Sunday in Lapland.

I’m so happy it’s snowy again. Welcome winter!

Kingdom of two giant fells: Pyhä-Luosto national park

The Pyhä-Luosto National Park in central Lapland is the kingdom of two giant fells. In the west, the handsome Ukko-Luosto dominates the landscape and in the east stands the ancient Pyhätunturi. There are many other peaks in the area, such as the mythical Noitatunturi, as well as impressive beautiful forests and ponds to fall in love with. The absolute experience for the first time visitor is the incredible Isokuru, one of the most powerful landscapes in Lapland.

Find your cottage at Pyhä-Luosto

Surely you know the wonderful feeling when after an all day trip you can get back into the cozy cottage and chat with the family or friends about the events of the day, while planning the next day’s trips? Comfortable cottage is a great base for hikers!

Cabin gems of the Pyhätunturi are available here >>

You’ll book and find the best cabins of Luosto here >>

Pyhä-Luosto is a versatile hiking area all year round and it is constantly growing popular with snowshoerd and fatbikers. Good routes and fireplaces provide an insight into both day trips and longer hikes.

At the base of Pyhätunturi, there is a wonderful Nature Center Naava, where a lunch restaurant and a souvenir shop are located. There are plenty of services for the needs of various hikers and explorers in the Pyhä and Luosto area. In addition to the versatile equipment rental, you can stroke cute reindeer at the reindeer farm, participate in a husky or snowmobile safari or even try ice climbing.

Easy to acces with public transport

It is easy to reach Pyhä-Luosto with your own car: the car can be left at either Pyhä, Luosto or the parking places between the fells. Trains and flights arriving to Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi have a bus service to Pyhä-Luosto around the year. The bus from both towns to Pyhä and Luosto drives daily. You can find timetables and more information at Matkahuolto’s website. Bus line goes also between the fells. For more information on how to arrive in Pyhä-Luosto you will find here.

First time at Pyhä-Luosto?

The Pyhä-Luosto National Park offers an excellent setting for photographing the northern lights, and you will also be able to get acquainted with Siberian Jays which enjoy the company of hikers. We also recommend to have a snack at Torvisen maja café. It’s a sympathetic café where the peaceful atmosphere is at its place without electricity and running water.

We want to recommend these unbelievably beautiful hiking trails:

  • Karhujuomalampi trail, 10km: The Circle trail is attracted with the impressive Isokuru and the picturesque Pyhäkastelampi. Remember that the entire Isokuru area is a restricted area of the National Park where deviation from the marked route is prohibited!
  • Tunturiaapa natural trail, 5-7km: Circle trail travels across fell and marsh areas and has a bird-watching tower on the way.
  • Noitatunturi, 15km: A demanding circle trail which goes across Isokuru, the waterfall of Pyhäkaste and the bond of Karhunjuomalammi
  • Ukko-Luosto, 6,5km: You can hike around Ukko-Luosto and stop by the top of the fell.

Read more about Pyhä-Luosto national park here.

Photos by Jonna Saari.

The largest nationalpark of Finland – Lemmenjoki

In Lemmenjoki national park you can experience the true northern wilderness. One of the biggest wilderness areas in Europe takes place in the municipality of Inari in Lapland, right next to the Norwegian border.

The name Lemmenjoki means “River of Love”. You can start the trip by going to Njurgulahti village where you can get boat rides or rent a canoe.

We went to the river for three days with our canoe to enjoy the autumn foliage of Lapland. Timing was perfect and the colors were unimaginable.

Bog billberrys colored the riverside with red and purple, and the birches took their final breath before the great winter and painted their leaves with yellow and orange.

The fells turned to red and almost golden from mountain bearberry and other shrubs.

The river flows calmly and patiently in here, where time seems to stop.

No matter in which direction you go, there is only true wilderness.

One of the greatest places in the world.

5 things you didn’t know about Lapland

What do you know about Lapland? You’ve probably heard about Santa Claus, maybe you’ve even met him when you were little. And all his reindeer of course – they live in Lapland. In winter there is lots of snow and beautiful northern lights, yes. But what more do you know?

I want to tell you about Lapland the way I know it, the way I love it. Here are 5 things you probably didn’t know about Lapland!

1. Reindeer like to hang out on roads in summer

When travelling in real Lapland it’s almost certain that you see reindeer at some point. In summer there are lots of mosquitos, so reindeer want to enjoy a bit of summer breeze that keeps the mosquitos away. That’s why they spend quite a lot of time on open places like roads. When driving, be cautious: these animals often don’t know how to give way to cars.

When you see reindeer on road, you probably want to take a photo. Make sure that you stop your car only on a good, visible spot. Do not park around a corner – there might be a bus or a truck coming behind you!

2. Summer in Lapland quite often feels like a real summer

Summers in Lapland are not very long, but they are stunningly beautiful. The sun is above the horizon 24/7 and the flowers are blooming like crazy. When the sun shines, it can get really warm, which in Lapland usually means something between 20 and 25 degrees celcius. There are lots of lakes and rivers – enjoy the Finnish everyman’s right and go for a swim!

3. Driving in Lapland is a blast

In Lapland there are endless roads and small villages in every direction. Many tourists come here by car, but if you need to take a plane to get here, I recommend you rent a car. That way you can enjoy Lapland’s traffic-free roads and amazing views on your own without having to be an expert hiker. However, remember to fill the tank often enough: it can be a 100km drive to the next gas station!

This is what you see when driving by Teno river in Utsjoki.

4. You can fish with a fishing rod almost everywhere

Thanks to everyman’s right in Finland, everyone is allowed to fish almost everywhere using a fishing rod. You don’t need any permissions, all you need is a fishing rod, some worms and a place to fish. Worms are usually sold in markets and gas stations. When choosing a place to fish, just make sure you’re not on somebody’s yard. You have an endless list of places to choose from: Lapland if full of lakes and rivers!

If fishing even with a simple fishing rod is prohibited for some reason in some specific lake or pond, there is a plaque on the spot that tells you not to fish.

5. People still offer gifts to ancient holy places

In Lapland there are many natural formations that have been concidered as holy. There are many holy fells, but also rocks, trees and ponds. A holy natural formation like this is often called a seita. They have been offered gifts like fish heads and reindeer horn bits to keep them happy, so that they would provide the giftgiver with hunting of fishing luck. Many of these places still receive gifts, like coins.

Taatsin seita in Kittilä is one of the best-known holy rock formations in Lapland.

These 7 summits in Finland are easy to reach and will take your breath away!

Climbing on top of a fell is something you’ll never forget. Physically it can feel exhausting – prepare to sweat. However, with each step you’ll notice that the view behind your back is getting more and more amazing. When finally on top, you can not believe how beautiful the view is.

Here are my personal favorites that are relatively easy to reach and their beauty is mind boggling.

Saana, Kilpisjärvi

Saana is one of the most legendary fells in Finland. To get to the top you’ll have to hike about 4 kilometers back and forth, including Finland’s longest stairs. The view on the top is spectacular – and so is the cold wind. At the feet of Saana you’ll find Kilpisjärvi Visitor Centre and for example a hotel and some restaurants. Read more in English here. MAP.

On top of Saana

Pyhä-Nattanen, Sodankylä

This is an ancient holy place of the sámi people who are the only indigenous people in the European Union. On top of Pyhä-Nattanen there are strange rock formations called “Tors” named after the Scandinavian god of thunder Thor. To get there you need to hike a 7 km circle trail. Pyhä-Nattanen is in the Sompio Strict Nature Reserve, which means that you have to stay on the official trail at all times. Read more in English here. MAP.

Tors on top of Pyhä-Nattanen

Olos, Muonio

Olos is a cute little fell near to the Swedish border. It is a ski resort with hotels and restaurants and stuff, but you can still experience the serenity of the Finnish nature when hiking on top of Olos. The hike to the top is not long: only about 1,5 kilometers from the hotel. I recommend wearing snowshoes in winter! Read more in English here. MAP.

On top of Olos. Levi fell is in the horizon.

Pallas, Muonio

Oh my, the Pallas fells will surely steal your heart. In the beautiful national park of Pallas-Yllästunturi, the round summits of Pallas are one of the most popular place to visit. To get to the top I recommend that you hike the 9-kilometer-long circle trail called Taivaskeron kierros. At the feet of Pallas you’ll find a hotel and a visitor centre. Read more in English here. MAP.

If you love reindeer, Pallas is the place for you.

Oratunturi, Sodankylä

When driving from Kemijärvi to Sodankylä or vice versa, Oratunturi is a must see. With only a 2 km hike you’ll reach the top of this quite underestimated fell. The trail is well marked with red, wooden crosses (it’s actually a snowmobile trail). The view from the top is unreal! You’ll also find a lean-to shelter with firewood and everything next to the top. To find out more contact the Sodankylä Tourist InformationMAP.

View from the top of Oratunturi fell.

Luosto, Sodankylä

The Pyhä-Luosto national park is very easy to reach and has lots to offer. In winter this place is amazing for snowshoeing and aurora watching. The hike to the top of Ukko-Luosto is about 2 km long. When visiting Luosto, check out this beautiful little café with no electricity or running water: Torvisen maja. Read more about Pyhä-Luosto national park in English here. MAP.

View from the top of Ukko-Luosto. Pyhä fell is in the horizon.

Levi, Kittilä

And finally, if you’re not into hiking but still wanna see some breathtaking views, there’s always Levi waiting for you. On top of Levi there’s a parking lot and even a café. It is not common in Finland that a road leads to a top of a fell, but Levi is an exception. This place is a very popular ski resort, so be prepared for lots of tourists especially in winter. In the feet of Levi there is a village with many kinds of tourist attractions such as snowmobile safaris, hotels, restaurants and so on. There’s even a cabin lift that will take you to the top if you don’t have a car! Read more about Levi here. MAP.

Polar night on top of Levi fell. Pallas is in the horizon.

Please remember that weather can change very quickly in Lapland. Also, the trails to the tops of the fells can be very steep and rocky. Always make sure that you have proper hiking shoes and hiking clothes and a map before you go for a hike – even if the hike is going to be a short one. If you don’t know what you should wear, contact the local tourist information and tell them where you’re heading to ask for their advice.

Polar bears in Finland… really?!

What do you know about Finland is often asked from foreigners. And sometimes the answer is cold weather, a lot of snow and polar bears walking around. At this point the inquirer may smile a bit. We are not in Spitsbergen, there you have to be aware of polar bears, in Finland not. We only have brown bears and they live in the wilderness. It is very rare if you see this brown predator even when hiking in nature.

But to be honest there are polar bears, too. Only three creatures and they live in Ranua Wildlife Park. Let’s take a closer look to these great animals and some others, too.

Mama Venus and her wild cub

A polar bear cub was born in Ranua Zoo in November 2016. The proud mother showed this cute little one to a curious audience in March this year. It is a remarkable thing that a captured polar bear gives birth and that the cub survives his first weeks. Only once before has this succeeded in Finland. The same mother, Venus, had a baby boy in 2012, and when the cub named as Ranzo got older, he was transferred to an Austrian Zoo in Vienna.

Hey, what’s that!?

This new born cub is a wild package and his mother has a lot to do with him. I visited Ranua Zoo in April and it was so much fun to follow their doings. Papa bear, Manasse, also lives in the same zoo, but he has his own area. Male polar bears may even attack and eat their own cubs, so they have to keep separated.

The empire of Manasse

Papa bear Manasse

It is a breathtaking experience to see these huge white bears at close range. Sadly this king of winter has become a symbol of climate change.

Lunch time!

The adorable cub has no name yet. There is a naming competition going on, check here: http://ranua-zoo.sivuviidakko.fi/suuri-nimikilpailu-eng.html

Our Finnish brown bear hibernates through the winter, and now it is the time they usually come out from their winter nests. Same happens in the zoo. There were two bears awake, but the other one still seemed a bit tired, so after a short walk she went back to sleep. 

I’m going to take a nap now!

What else is to be found in the Ranua Zoo? A lot, but these domestic ones are my favourites:

A wolf, the ancestor of all dogs. An endangered species which lives all over Finland. I love wolves. There is just something mysterious about them.

The area of wolves

Another also very endangered species is wolverine. Usually this small carnivore does not breed in zoos, but in 2014 wolverine cubs were born in Ranua Zoo.

And then there is lynx! A beautiful cat who has bobble ears. I am more of a dog person, but this wild cat I do like!

READ MORE: english.ranuazoo.com