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Finland has the cleanest air in the world – and that’s a fact!

The cleanest air in the world is in Finnish Lapland. It is proven that the world’s cleanest respiratory air is in the Muonio municipality of Western Lapland. In Muonio, there are only 4 microgrammes of particles of under 10 micrometres in a cubic metre, while in the world’s dirtiest city, Nigeria’s Onitsha, there are almost 600 microgrammes.

The database for 2016 of the World Health Organisation (WHO) reveals that the clean localities in the world are usually small, affluent and located far from industrial areas. Other particularly clean localities are Norman Wells, Canada, Campisábalos, Spain, and Converse County, United States. The WHO list took into account the mass concentrations of fine particles whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres (PM10). The diameter corresponds to a seventh part of a hair’s thickness. Particles of under ten micrometres travel with respiratory air into the human bronchi.

Finnish Lapland has the cleanest air in the world.

In Finland, the limit values of clean air are not reached anywhere

According to the WHO’s recommendations, the annual average of PM10 particles should be a maximum of 20 microgrammes per cubic metre. According to the WHO’s statistics, the levels fall below that everywhere in Finland, even in big cities.

According to the WHO, there was an average of 12 microgrammes per cubic metre including in Finnish urban areas in 2011. In India, the corresponding quantity is 134.

Only a tenth of European urban population enjoys air as clean as this. Air quality can be considered particularly poor, if the average of the mass concentration of particles of under 10 micrometres exceeds 100 microgrammes during an hour.

More dangerous than PM10 particles are fine particles of a diameter of 2.5 micrometres. Their amount per cubic metre should not exceed 10 microgrammes. In the world’s cleanest place, Muonio, the annual average for 2.5-micrometre particles is only 2 microgrammes.

It transpires from the WHO’s data, into which have also been collected the measurement data of fine particles of 2.5-micrometres from 3,000 localities in a hundred countries for the years 2008–2014 that, on average, Finland has the third cleanest air in the world. Only Sweden and Canada top Finland. Finland is followed by Australia, Iceland and Estonia. Air quality in these countries is very clean, that is, an average of fine particle concentrations of 2.5 micrometers fall below 8 microgrammes per cubic metre.

Finland’s air quality is excellent compared to the rest of the world.

According to senior researcher Pia Anttila of the Finnish Meteorological Institute, several factors influence Finland’s good air quality.

– Finland is located far enough from big European cities, so emissions from long-range transport of pollutants remain low. On a global scale, there is really only one big city in Finland, Helsinki, and even its air quality is excellent. There are also few inhabitants and little traffic in Finland. A very significant aspect is also that Finland has managed to curtail industrial emissions. In addition to good cleaning methods, industrial processes operate with clean technology.

Pia Anttila says that people living in countries with clean air do not always understand what a natural resource clean air is. Over 80% of the world’s urban population is exposed to air pollutants exceeding the WHO’s recommended values. Over 3.5 billion or a half of the world’s population live in countries where there is an average exposure to a quantity of particles exceeding the WHO’s limit values.

Fine particles and air pollutants cause asthma and aggravate obstructive lung disease and respiratory infection. The great quantity of fine particles also increases the occurrence of coronary heart disease and diseases of cerebral circulation. For example, if the quantity of PM10 particles can be reduced from 70 microgrammes per cubic metre to 20 microgrammes, mortality decreases by 15%.

If you want to breathe the cleanest air in the world, this is your destination: Muonio, Lapland.

Large African and Asian cities suffer from air pollution. Although the 600-microgramme figure of Onitsha, Nigeria, is huge, the figures are also alarmingly high the big cities of Asia. In Beijing, there are over 100 microgrammes of PM10 particles per cubic metre, in Delhi, India, over 230 and in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, even over 350. In Helsinki, the corresponding figure is 19. In Muonio, the cleanest place in the world, there are, on the other hand, almost five times less PM10 particles than in Helsinki.

Clean nature of Pallas-Yllästunturi

One of the world’s air quality measurement stations is located in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Finland’s most popular national park. The exceptionally clean air of this measurement station is compared to the data of the world’s other measurement stations. The measurement stations give important data for analysing the state of the world’s environment.

– Finland’s air quality is excellent compared to the rest of the world, particularly Asia, notes Riku Lumiaro of the Finnish Environment Institute.

– For example in Beijing you can feel the air pollutants in your lungs on a windless day. You’re also tired and your head aches.

Sunset seen from Pallastunturi fell, Muonio

Lumiaro considers Finland a good destination for health tourists. In Finland, the air, the water and the food are clean.

In Lumiaro’s view, a special feature of Pallas-Ylläs-tunturi National Park is quietness, in addition to the world’s cleanest air.

– In the spring and autumn, even birds are quiet there. In good wilderness hotels you can peacefully view the spacious fell landscape, which comes into its own in the clear, clean air.

The largest quantity of PM10 particles per cubic meter per day in Europe in 2005. Source: EEA. www.eea.europa.eu/publications/spatial-assessment-of-pm10-and-ozone-concentrations-in-europe-2005-1

This article was originally published by Ari Turunen / Slow Finland / Visit Finland

Photos by Jonna Saari

The healing power of forests

Those suffering from noise and stress can find an escape in forests. It is proven that sylvan nature reduces stress and blood pressure. Finland offers an excellent opportunity for a change in lifestyle, and its path leads to the forest.

Only five per cent of Finland’s surface area is built. More than 70% of the surface area is forest and 10% water systems. No wonder that enjoying nature is great on a global scale in Finland: more than half of Finns visit summer houses regularly.

As much as 70% of the inhabitants of northern Finland annually visit the nation’s forests to trek or pick berries or mushrooms.

In principle, every Finn has access to a silent forest and a strip of shore where one can be in peace. Foreigners too have noticed this. Tourists seek a counterbalance to their everyday life in Finnish nature destinations. They want peace, quiet and opportunities for nature and aesthetic experiences.

This is difficult in the built urban environment. For example, as much as 75% of Europeans live in an urban environment. Tourists value original nature, clean environment and local culture.

“Aesthetic experiences and the relaxing effect of a green environment lift your mood and help recover from stress,” claims Professor Liisa Tyrväinen of Natural Resources Institute Finland.

Dr. Liisa Tyrväinen has long studied the significance of forests as a producer of well-being. Forests have a great effect on people as a mental, cultural and experiential environment.

Air pollution and exposure to noise, in this order, are the biggest environmental problems for human health according to WHO, the World Health Organisation.

Insufficient recovery from stress raises the blood pressure and increases the risk of diabetes.

Ms. Tyrväinen emphasises that particularly nature areas must be seen as a resource of health care for city dwellers. According to many studies, forests promote both physical and mental well-being.

Large nature areas muffle noise and improve air quality by removing dust and other impurities and by binding ozone and monoxide gases.

It is also proven that an outing in nature and just being there lift the mood. Forests have a great therapeutic significance.

On the basis of studies, one can influence one’s state of health by being and moving in a nature environment. Especially in one’s favourite spot in nature, it is possible to regulate one’s condition towards promoting health.

“According to studies, people experience stronger recovery from stress on pleasant exercise routes often situated in the forest and in larger outdoor exercise areas than in the street and outdoor spaces of city centres mentioned as favourite places.”

Blood pressure falls and  the organs recover in the forest

Tyrväinen’s research group has results measured with heart rate monitors and blood pressure meters on how quickly a nature environment and particularly the forest help recovery from stress.

The measurements and surveys were made with a test group of almost a hundred persons.

“The health benefits of a green environment are evident.

A stressed person recovers quickly in nature. Recovery in a green zone is apparent after just 15 minutes!”

“The results of joint studies made with the Japanese are indisputable. When people were taken into the forest, a decrease in blood pressure and pulse, a reduction in muscular tension and an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system were observed in the measurement results.”

The parasympathetic nervous system is most active in rest. From the effect of a parasympathetic impulse, the heart rate slows down and respiratory frequency is reduced. Being in the forest has a similar effect on the organs as yoga or meditation. The Finnish forest is a retreat.

People felt more vigorous and even more creative after being in the forest. Liisa Tyrväinen emphasises the aesthetics of nature. Stress is particularly removed by the experience of nature, an unbuilt, beautiful scenery and silence.

Liisa Tyrväinen recommends consciously combining nature experiences and moving in nature with a holiday trip.

It helps recovery from the strains of everyday life. “One nature trip is not enough to heal, but it can be an impetus for a change in lifestyle.”

A nature trip to the Finnish forest offers a holistic health package. It includes multisensory nature experiences, a clean and beautiful environment, outings in nature, accommodation and sauna close to nature, silence and healthy forest products, such as berries, mushrooms, wild vegetables and game.

Article by Visit Finland / Ari Turunen